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Fascisme: Umberto Eco’s 14 punkter

Fascisme og nazisme, Ikke kategoriseret, Racisme

 

Laeserbrev.dk om fascisme og nazisme

Vi bragte for nylig den kronik, Claus Bryld fik udgivet i Politiken sidst i juni måned. På Facebook udspandt der sig efterfølgende en – synes jeg – kvalificeret debat om, hvad begreberne dækker, og hvordan vi meningsfyldt kan bruge dem i dag.

Derfor indkalder laeserbrev.dk til artikler, mere gennemskrevne, gode essays om dette tema.

S/HV portræt af Umberto Eco med kasket og frakke
Umberto Eco

 

 

  1. TRADITIONALITET.  The cult of tradition. “One has only to look at the syllabus of every fascist movement to find the major traditionalist thinkers. The Nazi gnosis was nourished by traditionalist, syncretistic, occult elements.”Ved synkretisme forstås  at flere religiøse mytologier bygges ind i det i det politiske narrativ. (Vikinger, hagekors?)
  2. FORKASTELSE AF MODERNITET  The rejection of modernism. “The Enlightenment, the Age of Reason, is seen as the beginning of modern depravity. In this sense Ur-Fascism can be defined as irrationalism.”Kampen mod oplysningstiden, modernismens gennembrud. Som vi ser det i Danmark, kan der være elementer af modernismeforkastelse. Afvisningen af modernitet og oplysning, af akademisk viden.
  3. HANDLING, AKTIVISME FOR AKTIVISMENS EGEN SKYLD   The cult of action for action’s sake. “Action being beautiful in itself, it must be taken before, or without, any previous reflection. Thinking is a form of emasculation.”  (maskulinisering)Den spontane handling bærer værdien i sig selv. (tænkning er en form for svækkelse, kastration)
  4. UENIGHED ER FORRÆDDERI :   Disagreement is treason. “The critical spirit makes distinctions, and to distinguish is a sign of modernism. In modern culture the scientific community praises disagreement as a way to improve knowledge.”Når modernismens væsen bygger på tanken om, at uenighed er led i en dialektisk erkendelsesproces og derfor per definition positiv. Men for fascismen er der tale om forræderi overfor en slags hellig tradition. Alle skal være enige hele tiden. Man går i takt og følges ad. Marchmusik…..
    “Den, der ikke er med mig, er imod mig”. eller “Und willst du nicht mein Bruder sein, dann schlag ich dir dein Schädel ein”.

  5. RACISME OG FRYGT FOR FORSKELLIGHED   Fear of difference. “The first appeal of a fascist or prematurely fascist movement is an appeal against the intruders. Thus Ur-Fascism is racist by definition.”Her skal ‘difference’ forstås som ‘forskellighed’Racisme er nødvendig som kendetegn ifølge Umberto Eco. Men i hvilken forstand (homofobi, fx?)
  6. Appeal to social frustration. “One of the most typical features of the historical fascism was the appeal to a frustrated middle class, a class suffering from an economic crisis or feelings of political humiliation, and frightened by the pressure of lower social groups.”Deb lavere middelklasses frygt for at synke ned i arbejderklassens besiddelsesløse lag. Miste sine privilegier.Middelklassens frustration. 
  7. The obsession with a plot. “Thus at the root of the Ur-Fascist psychology there is the obsession with a plot, possibly an international one. The followers must feel besieged.”
    Deb typiske drejebog. Sammensværgelsesteorien, komplottet.  Dolkestødslegenden
  8. The enemy is both strong and weak. “By a continuous shifting of rhetorical focus, the enemies are at the same time too strong and too weak.”
  9. Pacifism is trafficking with the enemy. “For Ur-Fascism there is no struggle for life but, rather, life is lived for struggle.”
  10. Contempt for the weak. “Elitism is a typical aspect of any reactionary ideology.”Foragt svaghed
  11. Everybody is educated to become a hero. “In Ur-Fascist ideology, heroism is the norm. This cult of heroism is strictly linked with the cult of death.”Følg med og bliv en helt
  12. Machismo and weaponry. “Machismo implies both disdain for women and intolerance and condemnation of nonstandard sexual habits, from chastity to homosexuality.”Masokistisk mandligt præg. Fordømmelsen af homoseksualitet er nødvendig. Vold og våben.
  13. Selective populism. “There is in our future a TV or Internet populism, in which the emotional response of a selected group of citizens can be presented and accepted as the Voice of the People.”
  14. Ur-Fascism speaks Newspeak. “All the Nazi or Fascist schoolbooks made use of an impoverished vocabulary, and an elementary syntax, in order to limit the instruments for complex and critical reasoning.”

This abridged list (available in full at The New York Review of Books) comes to us from Kottke, by way of blogger Paul Bausch, who writes “we have a strong history of opposing authoritarianism. I’d like to believe that opposition is like an immune system response that kicks in.”

One detail of Eco’s essay that often goes unremarked is his characterization of the Italian opposition movement’s unlikely coalitions. The Resistance included Communists who “exploited the Resistance as if it were their personal property,” and leaders like Eco’s childhood hero Franchi, “so strongly anti-Communist that after the war he joined very right-wing groups.” This itself may be a specific feature of an Italian resistance, one not observable across the number of nations that have resisted totalitarian governments. As for the seeming total lack of common interest between these parties, Eco simply says, “Who cares?… Liberation was a common deed for people of different colors.”

Read Eco’s essay at The New York Review of Books. There he elaborates on each element of fascism at greater length. And support NYRB by becoming a subscriber.